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syllabi / course descriptions

Golden West College

Course Syllabus

ENVS 143 Resource Management and Zero Waste for Communities (3.0 units)


Gregory Warren
(714) 744-5551 (office) (562) 212-3588 (mobile) [email protected] CRN#: 68604


Meeting Dates: April 2 to May 27, 2012
Meeting Day/Time: Monday and Wednesday (6:00 p.m. – 9:10 p.m.) Website:


This course will identify how resource management and zero waste policies and programs are developed within a community, what type of planning and facilities are needed, and how to finance the systems. Students will also review sample zero waste community plans and will discuss different approaches that communities have taken in developing zero waste plans. Students will also learn business recycling tools for local government, best practices for RFPs (Request for Proposals) and contracts, understanding enforcement options, design of resource recovery parks, performance reporting and financial records, Extended Producer Responsibility and Local Producer Responsibility policies and programs, bans, rules and incentives, and developing local markets and uses.






To successfully complete this course, you will need access to a computer with reliable internet access and an appropriate system and software to support the Blackboard learning platform. Typical technical requirements for Windows systems users are:


The successful student will be able to:

  • Review sample zero waste community plans and discuss different approaches communities have taken to develop zero waste plans.
  • Establish a grasp of the political and policy development process in communities.
  • Competently assess the role that interdependencies play in communities.
  • Understand the potential vitality and potential power of community groups.
  • Develop an enhanced understanding of report and memo writing.
  • Identify what type of facilities and financing are needed for zero waste communities.
  • Identify best practices for RFPs (Request for Proposals) and contracts for developing localmarkets and uses.
  • Identify Extended Producer Responsibility and Local Producer Responsibility policies and programs including bans, rules and incentives.USE OF ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENTAside from any electronic equipment that the instructor permits to be used, the use of any other electronic equipment during class is prohibited. During class, ringers on mobile devices and other devices are to be set to mute.TRADE ASSOCIATION MEMBERSHIP

    For those grant eligible students participating in the RRM Certificate Program; you will be required to sign up as a student member with the

  • California Resource Recycling Association. The membership will be paid for by the Workforce Investment Board. This will enhance your visibility in the industry, and increase your potential job placement opportunities through networking activities. As part of this assignment, you will be required to participate in one of the many technical councils affiliated with CRRA, and report back to the group as an assignment on current events.INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGIESThis course is offered in a blended delivery format. That means that each week will be comprised of face-to-face classroom, combined online collaborative and independent learning activities. The class is highly interactive and will be a mix of 16 evening classes on campus and time on Blackboard.

Golden West College Recycling and Resource Management



Bardach, E. (2009). A Practical Guide for Policy Analysis: The Eight-Fold Path to More Effective Problem-Solving. Washington, D.C. CQ Press. (ISBN: 978-0-87289-952-0).

Jensen, D. (2011) What We Leave Behind. New York, NY. Seven Stories Press (ISBN: 978-1-58322- 867-8).

Zero Waste Strategic Plan, City of Austin, TX. 2009. Zero Waste Strategic Plan, City of Oakland, CA. 2006.



State Legislation: CalRecycle


Additional Links


See Blackboard for details

Golden West College Recycling and Resource Management

DISCUSSION BOARD: You will participate weekly in the discussion board. You will post to the original question and comment to at least two colleagues’ postings. See Course-At-A-Glance for when postings are due.

QUIZZES: During the course of the semester you will be provided with the opportunity to take seven pop quizzes. These quizzes will be based upon major concepts presented and assigned during the course. Quizzes may be open note or closed note.

MIDTERM EXAMINATION: During Week 5 of the semester, you will be provided with the opportunity to take a midterm examination. This exam may be a combination of short answer, essay or multiple choice questions.

GROUP FACILITATION PRESENTATION: Each student will be assigned to develop a 30 minute presentation to the class. This presentation will be based on concepts conveyed by the instructor or assigned during the course of the class.

FINAL EXAMINATION: During the first class of Week 8, a final examination will be distributed. 3

Golden West College Recycling and Resource Management





Discussion Board

( 3 points each)



Mid Term Examination


Week 5

PowerPoint Presentation



Final Examination


Week 8



Extra Credit Paper and Presentation*




90-100 A 80-89 B 70-79 C 60-69 D Below 60 F

*The instructor reserves the right to designate an extra credit assignment for the affected student. The extra credit assignment will involve a 5-page written report and oral presentation based on the instructor’s discretion.



Golden West College Recycling and Resource Management


Length: 30 min facilitation

Prepare and lead a 30 minute facilitation (allowing time for Q&A) that accomplishes the following objectives:

  1. Allows the audience to discover a new meaning of the chapter’s views, i.e. agree, disagree, find omissions or new insights, etc. How have you developed new insights, or moved closer to your professional ideals given your reading of the material?
  2. Involves the audience in the learning process.

It is our assumption, based on research as well as anecdotal evidence, that people only learn when

they are involved. As the old saying goes,

Tell me — and I’ll forget. Show me — and I’ll remember. Involve me — and I’ll understand.

So, facilitation is not the same as teaching. As a facilitator, your role is to guide the discussion of learning from materials that the audience has already read. In other words, you can assume that your audience is familiar with the basic text; therefore, you do not need to repeat it.


Barring the completion of an extra credit paper and presentation, students who are absent 20% (equivalent of 4 classes) of the course should be failed. Class participation is required both in our F2F classes and through online discussions and posted assignments.

* Makeup: Additional work will be assigned as appropriate.


During this course, students are expected to achieve the course objectives and are graded on achievement not effort. Reading and written assignments listed as part of the Term Schedule are to be completed prior to the session due. Papers must have correct spelling and grammar, be typed (double-spaced) and submitted with a cover sheet. Work that is not in conformance with accepted standards of style, editing and grammar will be discounted.

If you miss

How Your Grade May be Affected

1 to 2 Classes

Excused with makeup* and class presentation

3 Classes

1 Full letter grade increment (i.e. “A” to “B” ) plus makeup examination

Over 3 Classes

Fail the course


Late Work

Since class participation and learning depends upon written assignments being completed prior to the assigned session; the grade of written work that is handed in late will be reduced by one grade, for example, an ‘A’ would become a ‘B’. Late refers to after the class when the paper is due.

Attendance and Participation

This course emphasizes group interaction in the classroom. This class is intended to be a learning community and focuses on shared learning. If a student is absent or late, the benefits of class involvement are lessened as well as potential contributions to the learning of fellow students. Any absence from class, even a partial evening, will negatively affect your grade and result in the loss of participation points. Missing one class due to illness or work travel can be made up with an extra writing assignment. The college recommends that students who are absent 20% should withdraw or be failed. In an 8 week course this translates to 2 classes.

Participation is more than coming to class; it is contributing to the overall quality of the class discussion and enhancing everyone’s learning. Attendance on Blackboard is also mandatory. To evaluate and award participation points, the following criteria will be used:

  • Preparation: Do contributions in class reflect thorough preparation and understanding of thecourse content?
  • Insight: Are the ideas offered substantive, providing understanding and even direction for theclass?
  • Relevancy: Are the points made relevant to the discussion in terms of increasing other students’understanding, or are they merely regurgitation of facts?
  • Listening: Do the comments take into consideration the ideas offered by others earlier in theclass, or are the points isolated and disjointed?
  • Risk-taking: Is there a willingness to explore new ideas or are all comments cautious and safe?
  • Interaction: Is the participant willing to interact with other class members by asking questionsand/or challenging conclusions?
    Remember you will not be graded on quantity but on the quality of your thoughts.NETIQUETTE FOR BLACKBOARD

    • Be polite and respectful of one another.
    • Avoid personal attacks. Keep dialogue friendly and supportive, even when you disagree or wish to present a controversial idea or response.
    • Be careful with the use of humor and sarcasm. Emotion is difficult to sense through text.
    • Be helpful and share your expertise. Foster community communication and collaboration.
    • Contribute constructively and completely to each discussion. Avoid short repetitive “I agree” responses and don’t make everyone else do the work.
    • Consider carefully what you write. Re-read all e-mail and discussion before sending or posting.
    • Remember that e-mail is considered a permanent record that may be forwarded to others.
    • Be brief and succinct. Don’t use up other people’s time or bandwidth.
    • Use descriptive subject headings for each e-mail message.

Golden West College Recycling and Resource Management


Golden West College Recycling and Resource Management

  • Respect privacy. Don’t forward a personal message without permission. •
  • Cite references. Include web addresses, authors, names of articles, date of publication, etc. •
  • Keep responses professional and educational. Do not advertise or send chain letters. •
  • Do not send large attachments unless you have been requested to do so or have permissionfrom all parties. •
  • Two-word postings (e.g.: I agree, Oh yeah, No way, Me too) do not “count” as postings.ACADEMIC WRITING STANDARDSSpecific writing standards differ from discipline to discipline, and learning to write persuasively in any genre is a complex process, both individual and social, that takes place over time with continued practice and guidance. Nonetheless, Golden West College has identified some common assumptions and practices that apply to most academic writing done at the college level. These generally understood elements are articulated here to help students see how they can best express their ideas effectively, regardless of their discipline or any particular writing assignment.Venues for writing include the widespread use of e-mail, electronic chat spaces and interactive blackboards. Golden West College is committed to guaranteeing that students can expect all electronic communication to meet Federal and State regulations concerning harassment or other “hate” speech. Individual integrity and social decency require common courtesies and a mutual understanding that writing–in all its educational configurations–is an attempt to share information, knowledge, opinions and insights in fruitful ways.

    Academic writing (as commonly understood in the college) always aims at correct Standard English grammar, punctuation, and spelling.

    The following details are meant to give students accurate, useful, and practical assistance for writing across the curriculum of Golden West College.

    Students can assume that successful collegiate writing will generally:

  • Delineate the relationships among writer, purpose and audience by means of a clear focus (thesis statements, hypotheses or instructor-posed questions are examples of such focusing methods, but are by no means the only ones) and a topic that’s managed and developed appropriately for the specific task.
  • Display a familiarity with and understanding of the particular discourse styles of the discipline and/or particular assignment.
  • Demonstrate the analytical skills of the writer rather than just repeating what others have said by summarizing or paraphrasing
  • Substantiate abstractions, judgments, and assertions with evidence specifically applicable for the occasion whether illustrations, quotations, or relevant data.


Golden West College

Recycling and Resource Management

  • Draw upon contextualized research whenever necessary, properly acknowledging the explicit work orintellectual property of others.
  • Require more than one carefully proofread and documented draft, typed or computer printed unless otherwise specified.ACADEMIC INTEGRITYAs a learning community, Golden West College emphasizes the ethical responsibility of all its members to seek knowledge honestly and in good faith. Students are responsible for doing their own work, and academic dishonesty of any kind will not be tolerated. Violations of academic integrity include, but are not limited to, cheating, plagiarism, or misrepresentation of information in oral or written form. Such violations will be dealt with severely by the instructor, and/or other designated individuals. Plagiarism means presenting someone else’s idea or writing as if it were your own. If you use someone else’s idea or writing, be sure the source is clearly documented.
  1. Plagiarism: Plagiarism consists of using another author’s words without proper identification and documentation of that author. Plagiarism takes the form of direct quotation without the use of quotation marks and/or documentation, or paraphrasing without proper identification and documentation. The fabrication of sources, or the act, deliberately or unconsciously, of passing another author’s work off as your own are also considered to be plagiarism.
  2. Falsification: Falsification consists of deliberately changing results, statistics, or any other kind of factual information to make it suit your needs. It also consists of deliberately changing a source’s intent by misquoting or taking out of context.
  3. Multiplesubmission:Ifyouwishtoturninthesameworkorusethesameresearch,inwhole or in part, for more than one course, you must obtain permission to do so from all professors involved. Failure to obtain this permission constitutes academic dishonesty. “Recycled work” must contain significant work as related to the current course topic, meeting the standards for the current assignment.

1)              UCLA EXTENSION

Case Studies in Recycling / Solid Waste Management

Eugene Tseng / Yu Yue Yen
UCLA Engineering Extension
30023 Rainbow Crest Drive, Agoura Hills, CA 91301 818-889-7287

[email protected]


This course will provide an overview of the “best management practices” of the recycling/solid waste management industry, and taught as an integral part of environmental sustainability. The design, implementation, and monitoring/evaluation techniques of benchmark sustainability, waste reduction/recycling programs utilized by industry, government, and others will be presented and analyzed. Guest instructors associated with the exemplary programs/projects will present various “case studies”. This course will also cover topics and issues such as the siting of waste processing facilities, environmental justice, communications and public relations for the environmental professional, stakeholder planning processes, and other current emerging topics.




The course goal/objective is to provide in-depth studies of exemplary waste reduction/recycling, and other sustainability programs so that students can apply the principles utilized in the case studies on the individual / class project. The project will be done in conjunction with an actual sponsoring company or jurisdiction, and will require the students to develop policy, plans, and use of quantitative environmental metrics designed to measure the progress on potential recommended programs.

UCLA Extension, Engineering, Information Systems & Tech Management Page 1


Environmental Metrics
Environmental Sustainability Plan Development
Zero Waste Plan Development
Environmental Justice
Siting of Waste Processing Facilities
Environmental Management Systems
Integrated Sustainability and Waste Management Programs International Recycling /Solid Waste Management Policy

Case Studies

  1. Gavina Coffee Sustainability Planning
  2. Toyota Motor Sales Zero Waste to Landfill Program
  3. Azusa Business Technical Assistance / Waste Assessment
  4. Extended Producer Responsibility
  5. Sustainable Building Design / Construction


Required Reading

Course Text(s): None
Handouts: To be provided on Blackboard


Class Participation:
Project: 100 %

% (limited to not more than 20%)

Quizzes: Mid-term Exam: Final Exam:


% % %


Number of Meetings: 12 Meeting Duration: 3 hours Meeting Frequency: Weekly Total Hours: 36 classroom hours Additional Notes: Field Trips

UCLA Extension, Engineering, Information Systems & Tech Management

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UCLA Extension, Engineering, Information Systems & Tech Management Page 3






Potential Field Trips:

Gavina Coffee
Home of Ed Begley
Warner Brothers Studio
Downtown Diversion C & D Recycling Facility Rainbow Disposal
Community Recycling Composting Facility (Lamont) Griffith Park Composting Facility
Gil’s Onions Anaerobic Digestion Facility
Sunshine Canyon Landfill / Calabasas Landfill


2)          UNION COLLEGE

Environmental Science, Policy & Engineering Program

Spring 2016

Waste Management and Recycling


Professor Dr. Ashraf Ghaly, P.E.
Department Engineering
Office Olin 102D
Tel., email 518-388-6515, [email protected]

Lectures: TTH 9:00 AM- 10:45 AM, WOLD-028. Lab TH 1:55 – 4:45 PM, WOLD-028. Click HERE for class presentations.


Introduction to various sources of hazardous, non-hazardous, biodegradable, and non-biodegradable waste materials. Focus areas are landfill systems, geosynthetics, geotextiles, geomembranes, geonets, single clay liner, single geomembrane liner, composite liner systems, leak detection and leachate collection, removal and treatment of leachate, and capping and closure systems. The recycling segment will explore natural resources of raw materials including origin and use, and potential and limitation for recycling of materials. Focus on various applications of recycling recyclable and non-recyclable materials. Discussion of methods of manufacture and compositions of such materials will concentrate on advanced industrial applications for the reuse of non-recyclable waste materials. Application areas include production of new materials, materials with superior qualities for special purposes, and materials with high level of resistance against certain environmental conditions. The course will also touch on the political aspect of recycling including consumer attitude and government incentives to encourage recycling. Three class hours and a weekly lab. Prerequisite ENS100 (Introduction to Environmental Studies) or GEO102 (Environmental Geology).


  • Assignments & Quizzes = 20%
  • Laboratory Reports = 20%
  • Term Test (6th week) = 20%
  • Term Paper = 20%
  • Final Examination = 20%
90+ = A 85+ = A(-) 80+ = B(+) 75+ = B 70+ = B(-) 65+ = C(+) 60+ = C 55+ = C(-) 50+ = D


  • Assigned homework is due as will be arranged. Late submission results in partial grade loss. One week late submission results in total grad loss.
  • Unannounced quizzes are probable to ensure students are keeping up with course work.
  • If you must miss the midterm test due to extraordinary circumstances beyond your control (a letter from the Dean of Students will be required in this case), your 20 points of the midterm test will be automatically transferred to the final exam, i.e., your final will be graded out of 40 points. No makeup for the midterm test will be allowed for any reason. If you miss the midterm without a supporting letter from the Dean of Students, there will be 5 points penalty.
  • If you must miss the final exam due to extraordinary circumstances beyond your control (a letter from the Dean of Students will be required in this case), your grade in the course will be prorated based on the components of your term work. No makeup for the final exam will be allowed for any reason.
  • The academic performance of the students in this course will be held to the standards of Union College’s Honor Code.


Worrell, W., and Vesilind, P.A. (2012). “Solid Waste Engineering.” 2nd Edition, Cengage Learning, ISBN 9781439062159.



  • Solid waste in history
  • Economics and solid waste
  • Legislation and regulations
  • Materials flow
  • Reduction
  • Reuse
  • Recycling
  • Recovery
  • Disposal of solid waste in landfills
  • Energy conversion
  • The need for integrated solid waste management
  • Special wastes


  • Definitions
  • Municipal solid waste generation
  • Municipal solid waste characteristics
  • Composition by identifiable items
  • Moisture content
  • Particle size
  • Chemical composition
  • Heat value
  • Bulk and material density
  • Mechanical properties
  • Biodegradability
  • Measuring particle size


  • Refuse collection systems
  • Phase 1: house to can
  • Phase 2: can to truck
  • Phase 3: truck from house to house
  • Phase 4: truck routing
  • Phase 5: truck to disposal
  • Commercial wastes
  • Transfer stations
  • Collection of recyclable materials
  • Litter and street cleanliness
  • Design of collection systems


  • Planning, siting, and permitting of landfills
  • Planning
  • Siting
  • Permitting
  • Landfill processes
  • Biological degradation
  • Leachate production
  • Gas production
  • Landfill design
  • Liners
  • Leachate collection, treatment, and disposal
  • Landfill gas collection and use
  • Geotechnical aspects of landfill design
  • Stormwater management
  • Landfill cap
  • Landfill operations
  • Landfill equipment
  • Filling sequences
  • Daily cover
  • Monitoring
  • Post-closure care and use of old landfills
  • Landfill mining


  • Refuse physical characteristics
  • Storing MSW
  • Conveying
  • Compacting
  • Shredding
  • Use of shredders in solid waste processing
  • Types of shredders used for solid waste processing
  • Describing shredder performance by changes in particle size distribution
  • Power requirements of shredders
  • Health and safety
  • Hammer wear and maintenance
  • Shredder design
  • Pulping
  • Roll crushing
  • Granulating
  • The pi breakage theorem


  • General expressions for materials separation
  • Binary separators
  • Polynary separators
  • Effectiveness of separation
  • Picking (hand sorting)
  • Screens
  • Trommel screens
  • Reciprocating and disc screens
  • Float/sink separators
  • Theory of operation
  • Jigs
  • Air classifiers
  • Other float/sink devices
  • Magnets and electromechanical separators
  • Magnets
  • Eddy current separators
  • Electrostatic separation processes
  • Other devices for materials separation
  • Materials separation systems
  • Performance of materials recovery facilities


  • Heat value of refuse
  • Ultimate analysis
  • Compositional analysis
  • Proximate analysis
  • Calorimetry
  • Materials and thermal balances
  • Combustion air
  • Efficiency
  • Thermal balance on a waste-to-energy combustor
  • Combustion hardware used for MSW
  • Waste-to-energy combustors
  • Modular starved air combustors
  • Pyrolysis
  • Mass burn versus RDF
  • Undesirable effects of combustion
  • Waste heat
  • Ash
  • Air pollutants
  • Dioxin


  • Methane generation by anaerobic digestion
  • Anaerobic decomposition in mixed digesters
  • Potential for application of anaerobic digesters
  • Methane extraction from landfills
  • Potential for the application of methane extraction from landfills
  • Composting
  • Fundamentals of composting
  • Composting municipal solid waste
  • Potential for composting municipal solid waste
  • Composting wastes other than refuse
  • Other biochemical processes
  • Glucose production by acid and enzymatic hydrolysis
  • Other bacterial fermentation processes


  • Life cycle analysis and management
  • Life cycle analysis
  • Life cycle management
  • Flow control
  • Public or private ownership and operation
  • Contracting for solid waste services
  • Financing solid waste facilities
  • Calculating annual cost
  • Calculating present worth
  • Calculating sinking funds
  • Calculating capital plus O&M costs
  • Comparing alternatives
  • Hazardous materials
  • The role of the solid waste manager


Lab (1): Field trip

  • Schenectady County composting facility & household waste sorting facility, and Colonie landfill facility, Colonie

Lab (2): Field trip

  • WTE Recycling Corp.

Lab (3): Field trip

  • Paper and cardboard recycling facility, Albany.

Lab (4): Field trip

  • Metal salvage and recovering facility, Green Island.

Lab (5): Field trip

  • Waste tires conversion and recycling facility, Niskayuna.

Lab (6): Field trip

  • Waste-to-energy facility, Hudson Falls.

Lab (7): Field trip

  • Schenectady County wastewater treatment and sludge composting facility, Schenectady.

Lab (8): Field trip

  • Hazardous and electronic waste recycling facility, Scotia.

Lab (9)

  • Direct shear test demonstration using geosynthetics.

Lab (10)

  • Project Presentation.


The sites of field trips are selected to show the students a wide variety of facilities involved in waste management, recycling, treatment, and waste-to-energy production. These visits are intended to be educational and informative. To get the most out of these field trips, students are expected to document every visit in a site-visit report. Students are encouraged to ask tour guides questions, inquire about details of operation, learn about the advantages and disadvantages of shown processes, and seek explanation for how various functions work. The report should contain all technical and non-technical information related to the visited facility: name, location, function, capacity, operation, products, by-products, and any information deemed necessary for a comprehensive report. In addition to written text, students may include in their reports tables, graphs, charts, figures, and site photos and video clips. All submissions will be electronic (more details will be given).

The lab sessions that will be conducted in the college lab are designed to study some of the specifications of the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) related to waste materials and containment systems. The lab report should include a cover page with the name of the student(s), course and standard specification titles, and date. The report itself shall contain the objective of the standard and procedure. The report should emphasize the technical aspect of the standard. Emphasis of grading will be placed on the technical content of the report as well as clarity, creativity, and correctness of writing.



Come Clean is a research-based project with focus on waste management systems and recycling techniques. The goal in this project is to research in depth one of the subjects listed below. Students can also research a subject not listed below but the instructor’s approval is required in this case. Students may survey case studies that document effective and economical methods of waste containment as well as successful projects of recycling that resulted in a reduction in waste that goes into landfill. The project may also offer a study of environmental compliance of a site with the standard specifications of the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM, see specifications cited below) and/or the regulations of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). This project is for the students registered in the Waste Management & Recycling course.

Suggested Topics

  • Acid Rain
  • Agriculture waste
  • Asbestos
  • Ash (waste of waste)
  • Brownfields
  • Carbon emissions
  • Chemical and biochemical treatment
  • Clean Air Act and Clean Water Act
  • Cleanup
  • Composting and biological treatment
  • Construction and demolition wastes
  • Containment systems
  • Energy recovery and thermal treatment
  • Environmental impacts
  • Facility siting and transfer stations
  • Final landfill post-closure use
  • Groundwater contamination
  • Hazardous (nuclear/radioactive) waste
  • Household hazardous (electronic/lead/mercury/cadmium) waste
  • Incinerators
  • Industrial waste
  • Integrated waste management
  • Landfills
  • Liners, caps, gas, and leachate
  • Medical waste
  • Metal recovery
  • Mining and mineral waste
  • Municipal waste
  • Ozone depletion
  • Paper and pulp
  • Pesticides
  • Recycling
  • Recycling of waste in new materials
  • Risk Assessment
  • Scrap tires
  • Environmental site assessment
  • Settlement of landfills
  • Sludge
  • Solid waste dust
  • Superfund
  • Toxins and dioxins
  • Waste collection
  • Waste composition
  • Waste generation
  • Waste reduction
  • Waste to energy
  • Wetland

Project Subject

Each student is free to choose the project subject they like to research but any given subject may not be selected by more than one student. Students in this course come from many departments and some may wish to address in their project a problem that is closely related to their major since the problems of waste containment and recycling techniques have many environmental dimensions. Students may also wish to explore a new field of interest or use a theme or a subject that has intrigued them (policy, regulations, environmental law, economics, politics, ethics and environmental justice, public perception, attitude, and opinion, etc.). All selected subjects must be approved by the instructor.

This Waste Management & Recycling course covers a wide variety of topics. Whether it is a containment system or a recycling project, the requirement for an in-depth technical study is always present. Furthermore, one should also ensure the sensibility and foundational premise of the project in order to gain public acceptance.

The literature is rich with examples of projects that transformed the public’s perception of waste and the general attitude towards recycling. Recycling is no longer a choice; it is a necessity for an enduring and sustainable environment. Students are to report in depth on their selected subject and offer a careful analysis of the all involved factors. Students may also wish to concentrate on how recyclable materials can be used in the manufacture of conventional products or to impart certain properties that can improve traditional materials.


Students may collect the scientific and technical information for their chosen project from one or more of the following sources: the Internet, technical publications, professional journals, magazines, textbooks, movies, documentaries, and all other credible sources including interviews with knowledgeable individuals.

Students are required to cite in their report all the sources they used in their research. Internet sites are cited using the address (URL) of those sites. All other references are to be cited with the name of author, year, title of paper or book, page, and publisher.

Progress Report

In the sixth week of the term, each student is required to submit a progress report. This should include the name of the student, title of the project, and a statement describing the subject. The instructor will provide feedback and approve the project subject if it involves the expected level of rigor. If more than one student selected the same subject, the instructor will advise these students that different projects are required.


At noon on the Saturday that precedes the tenth week of the term, the final electronic report of the project is due. The report should be equivalent to at least 10 pages of text (double-spaced type, Times font with one inch margin on all sides). In addition to the 10 pages of text, students may add pictures, tables, graphs, charts, figures, and any other supplementing materials. The total length of the report, however, may not exceed the equivalent of 20 pages.

Grading Criteria

In addition to the written report, students are required to make 8-10 minutes class presentation. The presentations will take place during the lab time in the tenth week of the term.

The grade in this project will be assigned based on the quality and organization of the report, relevance of content to the subject under consideration, understanding, clarity of presentation, organization, and demonstration of ability to address questions with comprehension.


  • Ackerman, Frank. (1997). Why do we recycle: markets, values, and public policy. Washington, D.C.: Island Press.
  • Albertsson, Anne-Christine. (1995). Degradable Polymers, Recycling, and Plastics Waste Management. CRC.
  • Curlee, Randall T. (1994). Waste-to-energy in the United States: a social and economic assessment. Westport, Conn: Quorum Books.
  • De, Sadhan K., Isayev, Avraam, and Khait, Klementina. (2004). Rubber Recycling. CRC.
  • Farrelly, E. M. (2008). Blubberland: the dangers of happiness. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.
  • Gandy, Matthew. (1994). Recycling and the politics of urban waste. New York: St. Martin’s Press.
  • Hegberg, Bruce A. et al. (1992). Mixed Plastics Recycling Technology. Noyes Publications.
  • Kanti L. Shah (2000). Basics of Solid and Hazardous Waste Management Technology. Prentice Hall.
  • Kharbanda, Om Prakash. And Stallworthy, E.A. (1990). Waste management: towards a sustainable society. New York: Auburn House.
  • Kreith, Frank and Tchobanoglous, George. (2002). Handbook of Solid Waste Management. McGraw-Hill Professional; 2nd edition.
  • Lund, H.F. (2001). The McGraw-Hill Recycling Handbook. Second Edition, McGraw-Hill.
  • Luton, Larry S. (1996). The politics of garbage: a community perspective on solid waste policy making. Pittsburgh, Pa: University of Pittsburgh Press.
  • Porter, Richard C. (2002). The economics of waste. Washington, DC: Resources for the Future.
  • Rathje, William L. and Murphy, Cullen. (2001). Rubbish!: the archaeology of garbage. Tucson, AZ: University of Arizona Press.
  • Rogers, Heather. (2005). Gone tomorrow: the hidden life of garbage. New York; London: New Press: Distributed by W.W. Norton & Company.
  • Tchobanoglous, George, Theisen, Hilary, and Vigil, Samuel A. (1993). Integrated Solid Waste Management. McGraw-Hill Publishing Co.; International edition.
  • Williams, Paul T. (2006). Waste treatment and disposal, Chichester, West Sussex, England; Hoboken, NJ, USA: Wiley, 2nd ed.
  • Young, Mitchell (ed.). (2007). Garbage and recycling. Detroit: Greenhaven Press.

Standard American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Specifications

  • D6008-96(2005) Standard Practice for Conducting Environmental Baseline Surveys.
  • E1527-05 Standard Practice for Environmental Site Assessments: Phase I Environmental Site Assessment Process.
  • E1528-06 Standard Practice for Limited Environmental Due Diligence: Transaction Screen Process.
  • E1609-01 Standard Guide for Development and Implementation of a Pollution Prevention Program.
  • E1903-97(2002) Standard Guide for Environmental Site Assessments: Phase II Environmental Site Assessment Process.
  • E1984-03 Standard Guide for Process of Sustainable Brownfields Redevelopment.
  • E2018-01 Standard Guide for Property Condition Assessments: Baseline Property Condition Assessment Process.
  • E2060-06 Standard Guide for Use of Coal Combustion Products for Solidification/Stabilization of Inorganic Wastes.
  • E2081-00(2004)e1 Standard Guide for Risk-Based Corrective Action.
  • E2091-05 Standard Guide for Use of Activity and Use Limitations, Including Institutional and Engineering Controls.
  • E2107-06 Standard Practice for Environmental Regulatory Compliance Audits.
  • E2137-06 Standard Guide for Estimating Monetary Costs and Liabilities for Environmental Matters.
  • E2173-07 Standard Guide for Disclosure of Environmental Liabilities.
  • E2201-02a Standard Terminology for Coal Combustion Products.
  • E2205-02 Standard Guide for Risk-Based Corrective Action for Protection of Ecological Resources.
  • E2247-02 Standard Practice for Environmental Site Assessments: Phase I Environmental Site Assessment Process for Forestland or Rural Property.
  • E2277-03 Standard Guide for Design and Construction of Coal Ash Structural Fills.
  • E2365-05 Standard Guide for Environmental Compliance Performance Assessment.

Professor Ghaly HomepageUnion College Homepage



3) OSU Comparative Studies 677.03 Cultures of Waste and Recycling

Autumn 2010
Prof. Dorothy Noyes [email protected]

UH 0024
MW 1:30-3:18

Comparative Studies 677.03 Cultures of Waste and Recycling

This course explores the notion of the residual: what is left over, useless, unclassifiable. We will explore the customary management of communal resources, both human and material, in scarce-resource societies. We’ll consider processes of symbolic classification through which phenomena can be labelled as out of place or out of phase. We’ll examine the creation of waste (and its converse, deprivation) with the codification of custom in modernity, and look at strategies by which waste is recuperated as a matter of necessity, aesthetics, or ideology. We’ll look at how different kinds of leftover move in and out of systems of value: for example, the labelling of things as “junk” or “antiques,” people as “trash,” or ideas as “folklore.” Finally, we’ll think about the status of residues in social and cultural theory.


Please bring the readings with you to class, except of course in the case of websites.

Books at SBX:
Strasser, Susan. 1999. Waste and Want : A Social History of Trash. New York: Metropolitan.

Veblen, Thorstein. “Conspicuous Consumption.” Harmondsworth: Penguin Great Ideas. (A chapter from The Theory of the Leisure Class, 1899.)

Online readings:
Most readings will be on Carmen. Readings marked LIBRARY will be found online through the journal title in the OSU library catalogue. (Note that journals are sometimes in multiple repositories depending on the years of publication.) The readings come from a wide range of sources and some are forbidding. Don’t panic. We will talk them through.


All assignments must be completed as described below for a passing grade.

1. General participation. 40%
being present and on time and awake in class
having relevant contributions to make in discussion. This entails having read the assigned texts and considered the discussion questions. I will put you on the spot to answer!


adding to the post-class Carmen discussion. You must post at least once a week with a substantive comment.
responding to other students’ projects on Carmen. You must comment with ideas or suggestions to three students after each of the three draft postings, responding to different students each time. (You’re welcome to do more, of course.) Due the Monday after the Friday posting of the topic or draft.

2. One day as class scribe. 10%

You’ll post your notes on the class discussion of the day, singling out those points of disagreement or interest where we left questions open. Post by 6 AM the day after the class in question!

3. Final project. 50% [10+20+30%]
Report on the social life of a cultural object. See pp. 8-9 for details.

Friday, Oct 1. Post topic on Carmen.
Friday, Oct 29. Draft 1—ca. 5 double-spaced pages. Post on Carmen. Friday Nov 19. Draft 2—ca. 10 double-spaced pages. Post on Carmen. Wednesday Dec 8. Final report—ca. 10-12 double-spaced pages of well- shaped and stylish prose plus appendix and bibliography. In Carmen dropbox.


Office hours T 1:30-3:30, W 10-12 at the Mershon Center, 104A, 1501 Neil Ave. (corner of 8th and Neil), 292-8683. Or by appointment or by telephone. Because I run around between offices and have a manic meeting schedule, it is always best to try me first by email, and even during regular office hours it’s helpful if you let me know when you’re coming.

Attendance is up to you, but affects your grade both directly (via your participation grade) and indirectly (via your ability to do the written work effectively). We need you here in the spirit as well as in the flesh. Please come to class with the readings done. Announcements made at the beginning of class will not be repeated for latecomers, so it is also in your interest to arrive on time.

Plagiarism. Plagiarism is the representation of another’s works or ideas as one’s own: it includes the unacknowledged word for word use and/or paraphrasing of another person’s work, and/or the inappropriate unacknowledged use of another person’s ideas. All cases of suspected plagiarism, in accordance with university rules, will be reported to the Committee on Academic Misconduct. Especially when doing research on the Internet, be extremely careful to credit your sources


appropriately (come to me if you are not certain how to do this). And bear in mind that it is much less work to do your own thinking than to plagiarize convincingly.

Disability resources. The Office for Disability Services, located in 150 Pomerene Hall, offers services for students with documented disabilities. Contact the ODS at 2- 3307. If you require accommodation to do the work of the course, please let me know immediately.

Class Cancellation. In the unlikely event of class cancellation due to emergency, I will contact you via email and request that a note on department letterhead be placed on the door. In addition, I will contact you as soon as possible following the cancellation to let you know what will be expected of you for our next class meeting.

Unit one. Approaching the residual




Experience, valuation, labelling, exchange

Leiris, Michel 1988 (1938). “The Sacred in Everyday Life.” In The College of Sociology 1937-39, 24-31, 399-400. Denis Hollier, ed. Betsy Wing, trans. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.

Geary, Patrick. 1986. “Sacred Commodities: The Circulation of Medieval Relics.” In The Social Life of Things: Commodities in Cultural Perspective, 169-191. Arjun Appadurai, ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.


Classification systems and social symbols
Douglas, Mary. 1966. “The Abominations of Leviticus.” Purity and

Danger, ch. 3. 51-72. London: Routledge.

Leach, Edmund 1979 (1964). “Anthropological Aspects of Language: Animal Categories and Verbal Abuse.” In Reader in Comparative Religion, 153-166. W. Lessa and E. Vogt, eds. New York: Harper and Row.


Topic due


The question of modernity


Lévi-Strauss, Claude. 1962. “The Science of the Concrete.” The Savage Mind, 1-33. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Comments on topics due


Category movements and the history of value

Thompson, Michael 1979. Rubbish Theory: The Creation and Destruction of Value, ch. 1 (1-12). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Unit two. Imaginaries of scarcity and abundance


Buried treasure, limited good and reciprocity

Grimm, Jakob and Wilhelm. 1987 (1857). “Godfather Death.” The Complete Fairy Tales of the Brothers Grimm, 160-163. Jack Zipes, trans. New York: Bantam.

Foster, George W. 1964. “Treasure Tales and the Image of the Static Economy in a Mexican Peasant Community.” Journal of American Folklore 77: 39-44. LIBRARY

Agonito, Rosemary. 1967. “The Snake.” From “Il Paisano: Italian Immigrant Folktakes of Central New York.” New York Folklore Quarterly, 54-55. DISTRIB IN CLASS



Film: Les glaneurs et la glaneuse (The Gleaners and I), dir. Agnès Varda. France, 2000.


Hunger and the land of Cockayne

Grimm, Jakob and Wilhelm. 1987 (1857). “Hansel and Gretel” and “Clever Gretel.” The Complete Fairy Tales of the Brothers Grimm, 58- 64, 286-288. Jack Zipes, trans. New York: Bantam.

Del Giudice, Luisa. 2001. “Mountains of Cheese and Rivers of Wine: Paesi di Cuccagna and Other Gastronomic Utopias.” Imagined States: Nationalism, Utopia, and Longing in Oral Cultures, 11-63. Luisa Del Giudice and Gerald Porter, eds. Logan: Utah State University Press.

Pellegrini, Angelo. 1984 (1948). “The Discovery of Abundance.” From The Unprejudiced Palate, 18-36. San Francisco: North Point Press.


Hill, Joe. 1911. “Pie in the Sky.” DISTRIB IN CLASS

McClintock, Harry. 1921. “The Big Rock Candy Mountain.” DISTRIB IN CLASS


Fertility, foreigners, and immigrants

The Book of Ruth idx?type=DIV1&byte=1120102

Unit three. Capitalism and waste


From thrift to efficiency
Franklin, Benjamin. 1758. “The Way to Wealth.”

Weber, Max. 1976 (1920-21). “Asceticism and the Spirit of Capitalism.” The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism, 155-183. Talcott Parsons, trans. New York: Scribners.

Frederick W. Taylor. 1947 (1912) The Principles of Scientific Management (selections). http://principles-of-scientific


Managing trash Strasser, chs. 1-4


Draft 1 due


The throwaway society Strasser, chs. 5-7 Comments on draft 1 due


Excess and display

Veblen, Thorstein. 1899. “Conspicuous Consumption.” From The Theory of the Leisure Class.


Bataille, Georges. 1985 (1933) “The Notion of Expenditure.” Visions of Excess, 116-129. Allan Stoekl, ed./trans. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.

Unit four. From modern to postmodern imaginaries


Bourgeois cleanliness
Stallybrass, Peter, and Allon White. 1986. The Politics and Poetics of

Transgression, chs. 1. 1-26. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.

Aretxaga, Begoña. 1995. “Dirty Protest: Symbolic Overdetermination and Gender in Northern Ireland Ethnic Violence.” Ethos 23:123-148. LIBRARY.


Moral geographies

Modan, Gabriella. 2002. “‘Public Toilets for a Diverse Neighborhood’: Spatial Purification Practices in Community Development Discourse.” Journal of Sociolinguistics 6: 487-513. LIBRARY.

Lindahl, Carl. 2007. “Katrina Stories, the David Effect, and the Right to Be Wrong.” Unpublished ms. DISTRIB IN CLASS.


Margins, centers, and vehicles
Film: The Perfumed Nightmare, dir. Kidlat Tahimik. Philippines, 1977.


The remix society
Bolter, Jay David, and Richard Grusin. 1999. Remediation:

Understanding New Media, 2-15, 231-240. Cambridge: MIT Press.

Recycled, Re-Seen: Folk Art from the Global Scrap Heap. 1996. Exhibition website, Museum of International Folk Art, Santa Fe. n/rrindex.html


Draft 2 due.


Unit five. Managing pasts and peripheries: development, heritage, displacement


People in the way

Shoup, Daniel. 2006. “Can Archaeology Build a Dam? Sites and Politics in Turkey’s Southeast Anatolia Project.” Journal of Mediterranean Archaeology 19: 231-258. LIBRARY

Morvaridi, Behrooz. 2004. “Resettlement, Rights to Development, and the Ilisu Dam, Turkey.” Development and Change 35: 719-741. LIBRARY

Comments on draft 2 due.


Preservation and erasure

Hufford, Mary. 2003. “Reclaiming the Commons: Narratives of Progress, Preservation, and Ginseng.” In Culture, Environment, and Conservation in the Appalachian South, 100-120. Benita J. Howell, ed. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.

Noyes, Dorothy. Under review. “Heritage, Legacy, Zombie: Burying the Undead Past.” Intangible Rights: Cultural Heritage and Human Rights. Deborah Kapchan, ed.


From scavengers to white trash

Stewart, Kathleen. 1996. “Mimetic Excess in an Occupied Place.” A Space on the Side of the Road: Cultural Poetics and Politics in an “Other” America, 41-66. Princeton: Princeton University Press

Hartigan, John Jr. 1997. “Name Calling: Objectifying ‘Poor Whites’ and ‘White Trash’ in Detroit.” White Trash: Race and Class in America, 41- 56. Matt Wray and Annalee Newitz, eds. New York and London: Routledge.

Penley, Constance. “Crackers and Whackers: The White Trashing of Porn.” White Trash: Race and Class in America, 89-112. Matt Wray and Annalee Newitz, eds. New York and London: Routledge.



Outsiders and outsider art
Ward, Daniel Franklin and I. Sheldon Posen. 1985. “Watts Towers and

the Giglio Tradition.” Folklife Annual, 142-157.

and see also Joe Sciorra’s blog on Italian-American constructed landscapes: cultural-landscapes


Final report due

Final project

  1. Friday, Oct 1. Post topic on Carmen.
  2. Friday, Oct 22. Draft 1—ca. 5 double-spaced pages. Post on Carmen.
  3. Friday Nov 19. Draft 2—ca. 10 double-spaced pages. Post on Carmen.
  4. Wednesday December 8. Final report—ca. 10-12 double-spaced pages ofwell-shaped and stylish prose plus appendix and bibliography. Email to me as attached file. [carmen?]

Pick an object–an artifact, a performance, a genre, an idea, a person, a place, a group–that is differentially evaluated by different actors. (If the object is big and complex, e.g. “heavy metal music,” you will have to treat it within a narrow milieu, but that milieu must encompass differential social positions and evaluations.) Your goal is to examine the social life of this object, and more specifically how social value is assigned to it, transformed, lost, or recuperated. Does it have inherent properties that constrain its fortunes? How does its point of emergence and its subsequent history constrain it? How malleable are cultural objects? How consensible across social positions is social value?

You’re going to turn in successive drafts of a report on this object, gradually sketching it out and filling it in. You’ll begin by laying out questions and plans in the parts where you don’t yet have any information. Your grade depends on how completely, how energetically, and how insightfully you carry out the assignment. I will respond at each stage and grade the three drafts.


Your report should cover the following, in roughly this order:

Identify the object. (This may get more precise over time, as you see what is really being evaluated, or it may diversify as the object is transformed in different situations.

Locate the milieu of the object—when, where, among whom, etc.

What do you know of the history of the object in this milieu, how it got there, its diffusion, what it used for, by whom, with whom it’s identified?

What are the labels attached to it, by whom?

Where do the labels come from, what are their associations, to what else are they attached to? In what class do they place the object?

Do the labels seem in any way contradictory with the uses and affect associated with the object? How do you account for the relationships between label, labeller, and the labeller’s affective and practical involvement with the object?

Are the conflicting labels in dialogue with one another? Is there mutual observation among different labellers, mutual awareness? Does the reaction to other labellings change the self’s relationship towards the object?

Do you see the object’s general reputation evolving over time as a consequence of these dialogues or of other factors?

What is it about this object that makes it contested and salient?

What’s at stake in the evaluation of this object?

Embedded throughout:

How do you know what you’re saying? (Footnote or otherwise highlight your sources)

How does our course reading and/or discussion shape your understanding of what is going on here?

At the end:

Appendix on your research process (e.g. I looked at Wikipedia, did a Google search, observed X event, interviewed Y, etc.) Where did you find roadblocks or confusion? What would you like to pursue further if you had time?



Course Outline

West Valley College





Welcome to the Introductory Course on Sustainable Resource Management. This course covers the 25 principles, or student learning outcomes (SLO’s), identified by the National Standards Certification Board of the NRC. More information can be found at:

The Introduction to Sustainable Resource Management (SRM) course has been designed to provide information on the policies, programs and infrastructure that support Zero Waste. Dependence on natural resources continues to grow at an unsustainable pace. Through SRM, both communities and businesses can support the reduction of wasted resources and materials and work to create a green economy.

The goal of SRM is to reduce, reuse, recycle and compost as a means to achieving Zero Waste. But, Zero Waste is not just about preserving precious resources. The implications of landfilling and incineration go far beyond just burying valuable resources. These practices also contaminate the air, water and land, and they contribute significantly to the production of methane, a potent greenhouse gas.

In 1970, the phrase “Reduce, Reuse, Recycle” was coined during the first Earth Day. Despite the fact that this phrase is highly recognized, not all aspects of the phrase are well understood or well practiced. Yes, Americans recycle! Yes, many Americans participate in reuse! But the fact is, that the “reduce” part of the phrase has been neglected to the point that most don’t even realize it is the first and most important part of the equation. This Country consumes and produces more now than ever. Much of these products contain chemicals, toxins and heavy metals that pollute the environment and our bodies. The good news is that through effective SRM strategies, businesses and communities can begin to look upstream at new practices and product redesign, that: reduce toxins; reduce the extraction and dependence of resources; reduce disposal; and reduce the harmful impacts to animals, people and the planet.

This course will look at upstream practices that reduce waste during the manufacturing and distribution of products, as well as downstream practices to collect, reuse, recycle and compost materials once they have been discarded. Additionally, the course will look at the impacts to the economy and job creation connected to SRM. According to a report by the Centers of Excellence (CoE), as well as numerous other national studies, Recycling and Resource Management (or Materials Management) is a field of high job growth. The report by CoE estimates 14,000 new jobs could be created over the next two years in California alone. A national study estimates 1.5 million new jobs by recycling 75% of all waste. These jobs depend on reducing disposal and returning more materials back into the economy through reuse and recycling.

David, so you want something in here to tie to:“Doing What Matter for Jobs and the Economy”.


Lesson #1: Introduction to Sustainable Resource Management (SRM) – PART 1

Lesson Description

Understand how and why Sustainable Resource Management (SRM) is the foundation for solving the issue of resource depletion facing our planet.

  • Understand how and why resources are being converted to solid waste at an unprecedented rate
  • Identify National and California based data and trends in disposal and recycling

Student Learning Outcomes

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • (Knowledge Level) identify what materials are being disposed and locate resources on existing disposal data.
  • (Comprehension Level) explain what is meant by the term Sustainable Resource Management according to the National Standard Certification Board of the National Recycling Coalition
  • (Comprehension Level) describe why wasting occurs and the various systems needed to manage waste and resources more sustainably
  • (Application Level) predict what materials currently have high levels of disposal

Lesson #2: Introduction to Sustainable Resource Management (SRM) – PART 2

Lesson Description

Learn the various technical terms associated with Sustainable Resource Management (SRM) and identify the hierarchy of existing systems needed to achieve Zero Waste

  • Master key terminology used by SRM professionals
  • Categorize materials in order to optimize opportunities for reduction, reuse, recycling and composting

Student Learning Outcomes

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • (Knowledge Level) describe the fundamental principles and practices related to waste reduction and reuse; recycling and composting
  • (Knowledge Level) list at least 5 primary (or market) categories of resources or materials
  • (Comprehension Level) explain what is meant by Sustainable Resource Management
  • (Comprehension Level) explain the meaning of the various technical terms and language used in an SRM system.
  • (Comprehension Level) summarize examples of 1-2 resources or materials within each primary (or market) category.
  • (Application Level) state personal examples of items they currently use that are wasteful and could be eliminated
  • (Analysis Level) differentiate the different types of material streams among various sections, such as residential and commercial.

Lesson #3: History of Solid Waste Management

Lesson Description

Understand the practices and laws that have led to the establishment of the modern-day waste management systems in California.

  • Explain the history of residential and commercial recycling systems and programs.
  • Understand the applicable resource management laws

Student Learning Outcomes

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • (Knowledge Level) recall at least 5 Federal, State or Local laws that have contributed to resource management in California
  • (Knowledge Level) identify key state regulatory agencies in California
  • (Comprehension Level) describe the key components and requirements of Assembly Bill 939 on local government
  • (Application Level) examine existing legislation and draw conclusions as to why certain adopted policies have been able to gain the legislative support needed to become law

Lesson #4: Collection Systems

Lesson Description

Gain insight into the various systems needed to collect resources from residential, commercial and industrial establishments.

  • Recognize different bin and cart types
  • Learn how to optimize collection through various equipment and material sort strategies
  • Understand the importance of properly sorting materials prior to disposal

Student Learning Outcomes

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • (Knowledge Level) identify the various bins and carts used to collect waste and recyclables
  • (Comprehension Level) contrast the differences in collection systems for residential and commercial resource streams
  • (Application Level) classify resources into collection categories that optimize both diversion and costs

Lesson #5: SRM System Infrastructure

Lesson Description

Understand the infrastructure, design, and systems needed to process waste and recyclables, maximize diversion and reduce material disposal.

  • Learn about the various facilities used to process recyclables, reusables, organics and residuals.
  • Understand the basics of sorting materials and which factors play a role in the design of processing systems.

Student Learning Outcomes

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • (Knowledge Level) identify at least four different facility types needed in an SRM system
  • (Comprehension Level) classify different materials by the type of facility that can handle, process and sort resources for secondary markets
  • (Application Level) modify a collection or sort system to adapt to season variation in materials collected to ensure the highest diversion from landfills or incineration

Lesson #6: Understand the Basics of Commodities and Their Markets

Lesson Description

Understand the basics of how facilities sort, process and market commodities to secondary markets.

  • Identify the Market Categories of discarded commodities and their values
  • Learn how secondary markets process and reutilize the commodities and where this is commonly done
  • Gain insight into the embedded energy savings of reutilized resources

Student Learning Outcomes

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • (Knowledge Level) describe how contamination impacts the sorting and processing of materials
  • (Comprehension Level) contrast the process for sorting, processing and marketing two common recyclable materials
  • (Application Level) discuss various factors in processing systems that can affect the amount of residual being produced and ultimately lead to the decision to dispose of resources

Lesson #7: Conducting a Waste Audit

Lesson Description

Learn the steps to conduct a waste analysis

  • Learn the steps to plan and safely carry out a waste audit
  • Use acquired information to perform a waste analysis at home or at a business

Student Learning Outcomes

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • (Knowledge Level) describe the primary steps to perform a waste audit/analysis
  • (Knowledge Level) state the best time to audit and identify proper steps to prepare for the audit
  • (Application Level) apply knowledge learned by conducting a waste audit at home, school or a businesses

Lesson #8: Tracking, Measurement, and Analysis

Lesson Description

Understand why developing baseline data, measurement and tracking are critical to effective strategies to reduce waste and save businesses money. Learn the steps to right-size waste and recycling services. Be provided basic information on how to analyze the captured data and create action plans for businesses based on the information.

  • Understand how to develop a baseline and then measure and track diversion programs
  • Learn to the formula for calculating diversion
  • Learn the steps to plan and safely perform a waste and recycling “right-sizing”
  • Use acquired data from the waste analysis to help create “next-steps” and drive diversion

Student Learning Outcomes

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • (Knowledge Level) identify some of the key factors to measure when tracking and recording the cost of disposal and recycling practices
  • (Knowledge Level) describe the primary steps to perform a waste /recycling “right-sizing”
  • (Comprehension Level) explain what is meant by baseline data
  • (Comprehension Level) summarize how the results of the audit can be used to design program “next steps” and help eliminate wasting
  • (Application Level) Calculate diversion rates for various business models
  • (Analysis Level) examine the data from a waste audit and create a strategy for home/school/businesses to reduce or eliminate wasteful practices



Lesson #9: Introduction to Zero Waste

Lesson Description

Zero Waste Businesses are leading the way to Zero Waste and have diverted over 90% of their waste from landfill and incineration. Zero Waste Communities have adopted Zero Waste goals and plans to implement those goals. Through lecture, group discussion and interactive activities students will be introduced to:

  • Definition of Zero Waste, drivers and benefits for businesses and communities to pursue Zero Waste, and examples of Zero Waste Businesses and Communities
  • Zero Waste Business Principles and Zero Waste Business Recognition and Certification Programs
  • Zero Waste Community Principles and samples of policies and programs Upstream (e.g. Extended Producer Responsibility, Local Product Bans and Fees) and Downstream (including Reuse, Recycling, Composting infrastructure and Resource Recovery Parks) that can help a community achieve Zero Waste

Student Learning Outcomes

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • (Knowledge Level) identify the 3 key components of the Definition of Zero Waste
  • (Comprehension Level) describe how businesses benefit from achieving Zero Waste
  • (Application Level) cite several examples of businesses that have already achieved Zero Waste, or darn close.

Lesson #10: Developing Zero waste Community Plans

Lesson Description

Through lecture, group discussion and activity, students will learn how communities working to pursue Zero Waste often develop Zero Waste Plans to identify an approach that is embraced by residents, businesses, service providers and other stakeholders in the community. This lesson will discuss key elements of the Zero Waste planning process, including:

  • Review Data, Policies and Programs
  • Participation Strategy
  • Commodities & Service Opportunities Analysis
  • Policies, Programs and Facilities Options
  • Economics & Impacts (Jobs, GHG)
  • Implementation Plan (including timeline & “low-hanging fruit” for quick success)


This class will review sample Zero Waste Community plans and will discuss the basic approach communities have taken to developing Zero Waste Plans.


Student Learning Outcomes

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • (Knowledge Level) identify the 6 key elements of the Zero Waste community planning process
  • (Comprehension Level) describe how residents, businesses, staff, elected officials or nonprofit organizations initiate the development of a Zero Waste Plan for their community
  • (Application Level) examine what services are missing from their communities that are needed to achieve Zero Waste.

Lesson #11: Zero Waste Market Development

Lesson Description

Through lecture, group discussion and activities students will learn:

  • How Resource Recovery Parks can help in the siting of new processing facilities
  • The importance of developing local markets and end uses for recovered materials
  • How public and private partnerships with colleges and universities could help in research and development for new products and innovations
  • The different tools for efficient exchange of materials between businesses and individuals

Student Learning Outcomes

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • (Knowledge Level) identify what a Resource Recovery Park is and where they are developing as a logical extension of current systems and processes for handling waste.
  • (Comprehension Level) describe different types of market development programs that have been adopted by state and local governments to stimulate the development of new markets.
  • (Application Level) explain how posting an item to Craig’s list, e-Bay, or other materials marketplaces helps to achieve Zero Waste.

Lesson #12: Introduction to Zero Waste Businesses

Lesson Description

This lesson provides an introduction to developing Zero Waste plans for businesses. Students will focus on leadership, total participation and increasing efficiency and the bottom-line. Understand why businesses pursue Zero Waste (history and background)

  • Be introduced to key components of a zero waste plan (total participation, leadership, training and vendor relations)
  • Learn about Contracts and service provider relationships


Student Learning Outcomes

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • (Comprehension) Describe the key goals and objectives of a zero waste plan
  • (Knowledge) Identify the basic format for a Zero Waste plan and Zero Waste Goals
  • (Knowledge) Share how different contract and agreement businesses and service providers can mutually benefit from Zero Waste initiatives
  • (Comprehension) Describe the difference between a waste audit and a Zero Waste audit in identifying opportunities for efficiency and increase savings/revenues
  • (Knowledge) Understand how leadership, employee training and vendor relations are an important piece of the Zero Waste plan

Lesson #13: Introduction to Product Stewardship and Extended Producer Responsibility

Lesson Description

Learn the various definitions and recognize the importance of Product Stewardships and Producer Responsibility policies and programs for achieving Zero Waste

  • Learn the various forms of product stewardship (PS) and producer responsibility (EPR) policies that have been adopted around the world
  • Recognize that Product Stewardship and EPR are a necessary component of Zero Waste primarily related to difficult to handle material types

Student Learning Outcomes

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • (Knowledge Level) list at least five materials that generally require a producer responsibility policy to ensure safe and proper disposal/recycling
  • (Knowledge Level) identify countries that have implemented EPR
  • (Comprehension Level) describe the benefits to manufacturers when they take responsibility for products

Lesson #14: Zero Waste Economics

Lesson Description

Understand various economic issues required to successfully implement Sustainable Resource Management and how Zero Waste can work to grow local economies, including:

  • How to harness the avoided costs of garbage collection and disposal as the engine of change for Zero Waste
  • Different public and private sector financing approaches to fund Zero Waste programs
  • Clauses for Requests for Proposals (RFP), contract structures and incentives such as revised garbage rate structures that can be used to stimulate waste generators, haulers, processors and disposal facilities to reduce wasting and increase reuse, recycling and composting
  • Economic analyses of program costs and benefits, and developing budgets for short- and long-term planning
  • How reducing waste has a positive impact on local economies, including job creation

Student Learning Outcomes

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • (Knowledge Level) identify 3 incentives that communities can adopt to stimulate generators, haulers, processors and/or disposal facilities to reduce wasting and increase reuse, recycling and composting
  • (Comprehension Level) describe how to harness the avoided costs of garbage collection and disposal as the engine of change for Zero Waste
  • (Application Level) examine how a garbage rate structure can incentivize waste reduction.

Lesson #15: Introduction to Organics

Lesson Description

This lesson provides an introduction to the organic fraction of the waste stream which comprises a third of all disposed materials. Through lecture, slides and group discussion students will:

  • Understand the organic fraction of the waste stream
  • Be introduced to the composting process

Student Learning Outcomes

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • (Knowledge) Describe which fractions of the waste stream are organic
  • (Comprehension) State the various options for diverting organics from the waste stream via composting or other technologies
  • (Comprehension) Describe the basic process of composting.
  • (Application) Utilize available resources to research organics topics.

Lesson #16: Organics Programs and Facilities

Lesson Description

This lesson provides an overview of organics collection programs and composting facilities. Through lecture, slides, group discussion, and hands on activities, students will:

  • Understand the basic requirements of organics collection programs
  • Understand the need for public education and outreach
  • Review how the composting process works on a large scale and in practice
  • Be exposed to a number of examples of organics collection programs and compost facilities.

Student Learning Outcomes

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • (Application) Provide input on an organics collection program
  • (Comprehension) Describe the basics of organics collection and the importance of working with the end user facility
  • (Knowledge) State how large scale composting is practiced
  • (Comprehension) Describe the opportunities and constraints of on-site composting

Lesson #17: Commercial Organics Programs

Lesson Description

This lesson will describe a variety of commercial organics collection and processing programs. Through lecture, group discussion, and slides students will:

  • Review a number of organics collection and composting programs
  • Understand how to develop an organics collection program

Student Learning Outcomes

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • (Knowledge) State the primary markets for compost.
  • (Comprehension) State key steps of implementing an organics collection program based on a case study of the City of San Diego and one of its major organics suppliers.
  • (Application) Describe the key elements, opportunities and challenges of an organics collection program.

Lesson #18: Construction Debris Best Management Practices

Lesson Description

Learn about the various material types and systems which are classified as Construction and Demolition or more commonly referred to as “C&D”.

  • Learn the various materials types and secondary markets for reuse and recycling
  • Gain an understanding of how to implement collection systems that encourage diversion and optimal processing of these highly valued resources


Student Learning Outcomes

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • (Knowledge Level) list at least five material types generally classified as C&D and describe the most common construction project that generates each type of material
  • (Comprehension Level) describe the key benefits associated with C&D recovery and recycling
  • (Application Level) examine a local C&D ordinance and share key areas that both positively and negatively impact diversion of C&D materials

Lesson #19: U.S. Zero Waste Business Council and Facility Rating Systems

Lesson Description

The USZWBC has developed a Zero Waste Business Facility Certification. This lesson will share important information about the different business certification programs and how the definition of Zero Waste is key to creating a true Zero Waste business model.

  • History and purpose of the USZWBC rating system as compared to other similar certifications
  • The Facility Scorecard rating system and categories

Student Learning Outcomes

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • (Knowledge) Identify all 15 categories of the Facility Scorecard
  • (Knowledge) State the importance of tracking and measurement
  • (Comprehension) Contrast the USZWBC facility certification from other third-party certifications
  • (Application) Use tools and metrics to identify cost reduction opportunities in implementing a zero waste initiative.

Lesson #20: Greenhouse Gas Connections to Sustainable Resource Management

Lesson Description

Through lecture, group discussion and activity students will:

  • Learn about Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions and reductions
  • Understand Sustainable Materials Management and Lifecycle Analysis,
  • Describe and compare models measuring GHG impacts from SRM,
  • Summarize California policies linking GHG reduction and increased recycling.


Student Learning Outcomes

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • (Knowledge) Identify the fundamental principles and practices relating to SRM greenhouse gas emissions and reductions
  • (Knowledge) Identify market impacts for recovered products and material and the associated GHG reduction impacts
  • (Comprehension) Explain why communities are adopting community greenhouse gas protocols including SRM
  • (Knowledge) Identify tools and metrics to measure and compare GHG impacts to sustainable management programs

Lesson #21: Developing Outreach Strategies to Enhance SRM Programs and Practices

Lesson Description

Learn about the various forms of outreach activities and how to use these activities to create effective campaign strategies aimed at enhancing individual sustainable actions and habits

  • Learn about different types of outreach and education strategies
  • Understand how to motivate behaviors through messaging
  • Build a communications plan

Student Learning Outcomes

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • (Knowledge Level) describe the three types of outreach strategies
  • (Comprehension Level) Identify the five elements of a communications plan
  • (Application Level) create a communications plan for a target audience that will educate them on the roll-out of a new organics recycling program